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      歡迎來到原中小學教育資源網!

      現代文閱讀《藏獒為什么不能當警犬》題目及答案

      閱讀答案 時間:2018-05-08 我要投稿
      【www.51cxty.com - 閱讀答案】

        藏獒為什么不能當警犬

        ⑴我們都知道藏獒性格剛毅,力大兇猛,使人望而生畏。它護領地、護食物、善攻擊,但對主人極為親熱。既然它兇猛又忠誠,那么,發展它做警犬,更好地為人類服務不是最好的選擇嗎?

        ⑵能夠入選警犬序列的犬種有五項要求:神經類型好;有膽量;銜取能力好;服從性好;體能好。根據這五項要求,我們來看看藏獒是否合適做警犬。

        ⑶藏獒的體能應該是最沒有問題的,我們都知道藏獒力大、善奔跑。那么,藏獒為什么有力量、善于奔跑呢?這取決于它不同于一般犬類的肺。藏獒的肺比一般的犬類大一倍,因為它們長期生活在青藏高原——一個極其缺氧的環境中。藏獒的肺胸膜比較厚,里面有豐富的膠原纖維和彈性纖維,這樣的肺胸膜部有利于在強烈呼吸時的肺部收縮和擴張。此外,藏獒的肺泡也很特別,有著非常豐富的毛細血管,里面儲存了大量的紅細胞,攜帶著很多氧氣。在一般情況下,這些肺泡處在半休息的狀態,一旦藏獒劇烈運動或者長途奔跑,它們就會立即恢復呼吸功能,為藏獒提供足夠的氧氣。這些肺泡使藏獒擁有了比一般動物更強大的呼吸儲備力,以適應缺氧的高原生活。藏獒的肺部結構真是太完美了,簡直就像一輛跑車安裝了一部頂級的發動機,它使藏獒在高原上奔跑時能達到每小時80公里左右的驚人速度,并且具有持久力。看來藏獒的體能和耐力都是絕對不成問題的,但是它的這種完美的肺,只適合在高原地區,到了平原和低海拔地區,這樣的肺部結構反而成了藏獒奔跑時的負擔。

        ⑷既然如此,再來看看藏獒的其他方面如何?

        ⑸根據考古發現,藏獒在青藏高原上至少生存了800~1300萬年。長久以來,為了能使自己在惡劣的自然條件下生存下來,它們不得不竭盡全力與其他動物甚至是自己的同伴爭奪食物,從而養成了擅斗的性格,而且在攻擊中非常兇猛和殘忍。這樣的善斗和兇猛,使藏獒處在一種沒有天敵的環境里,“有膽量”這一條,藏獒是非常非常合格的。但也正是因為沒有天敵,藏獒對身外之事顯得漠不關心,也就很難接收外界的信息。因此,它的神經類型比較弱,除了食物以外的東西吸引不了它,這樣,最重要的第一條,藏獒卻不具備。而且,還因為它“沒有天敵,對身外事物漠不關心”,使它的依賴性很差。一個犬種對人的依賴性較差,就意味著它服從命令的程度也很差。所以,藏獒沒有被列為警犬目錄。

        ⑹想不到,藏獒竟然是因為它自身的優勢——完美的肺部結構和英勇善戰的個性阻礙了它的發展,使它不能走上做警犬的道路。

        12.藏獒為什么不能走上做警犬的道路?(2分)

        13.第⑶段中運用了哪些說明方法?意在說明什么?(2分)

        14.文中第⑸段劃線句子中的“至少”能否刪去,為什么?(2分)

        15.藏獒因為自身的優勢,阻礙了它的發展。請聯系生活,談談你對優勢的理解。(2分)

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