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      歡迎來到原中小學教育資源網!

      高中生文言文翻譯十大技巧

      文言文 時間:2018-05-25 我要投稿
      【www.51cxty.com - 文言文】

        翻譯文言文有三個基本原則:信、達、雅。所謂信,就是指譯文要準確無誤,不誤解、不遺漏、不增譯;所謂達,就是指譯文要通順暢達無語病,符合漢代漢語的語法和用語習慣,做到字通句暢;所謂雅,就是指譯文要優美自然,力求體現原文的語言特色,文筆優美富有表現力。文言文翻譯要想做到雅這一點,必須對我國的古今語言十分熟悉,并有較強的駕馭語言的能力和修養,這對于中學生來說是很困難的。尤其是目前對文言文翻譯的考查并不太注重,因此翻譯時能夠做到信和達就已經很不錯了。

        下面結合例句簡介文言文翻譯常用的十種技巧:

        留:專有名詞、國號、年號、地名、人名、物名、職稱、器皿等,可照錄不翻譯。比如:陳勝自立為將軍,吳廣為都尉。(《陳涉世家》)將軍和都尉都是官名,照錄不翻譯。

        刪:刪去不需要翻譯的詞。比如《曹劌論戰》夫戰,勇氣也。這里的夫為發語詞,翻譯時應該刪去。《狼》:肉已盡矣,而兩狼之并驅如故。這里的之起補足音節的作用,沒有實意,應該刪去。

        補:翻譯時應補出省略的成分。比如《兩小兒辯日》:日初出大如車蓋,及日中則如盤盂。翻譯時在如盤盂前補出形容詞性謂語小。

        換:翻譯時應把古詞換成現代詞。如《觀潮》:每歲京尹出浙江亭校閱水軍。這里的歲應換成年。

        調:翻譯時,有些句子(謂語前置、定語后置、賓語前置、介賓結構后置等)的詞序需要調整。如《愚公移山》:甚矣,汝之不惠!可以調整為汝之不惠甚矣的形式。

        選:選用恰當的詞義翻譯。文言文中一詞多義的情況比較常見,因此選用恰當的詞義進行翻譯,已經成為文言文翻譯的難點。如《出師表》:三顧臣于草廬之中,這里的顧是一個多義詞,有多種解釋:回頭看、看、探問、拜訪、顧惜、顧念、考慮,在本句中用拜訪最為恰當。

        譯:譯出實詞、虛詞、活用的詞和通假字。如《核舟記》:石青糝之。這里的糝是名詞活用為動詞,翻譯時必須譯出。

        意:意譯。文言文中的比喻、借代等意義,直譯會不明白,應用意譯。如《鴻門宴》:秋毫不敢有所近。直譯:連秋天里野獸的毫毛也不敢接近。意譯:連最小的東西都不敢占有。

        縮:文言文中有些句子,為了增強氣勢,故意用了繁筆,翻譯時可以將其凝縮。

        擴:一是把文言文中的單音詞擴為同義的雙音詞或多音詞,二是對一些言簡意豐的句子,翻譯時,要擴展其內容,才能把意思表達清楚。

        關于翻譯文言文的方法,還可以按照下面的順口溜記憶:

        文言語句重直譯,把握大意斟詞句。

        人名地名不必譯,古義現代詞語替。

        倒裝成分位置移,被動省略譯規律。

        碰見虛詞因句譯,領會語氣重流利。

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