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      歡迎來到原中小學教育資源網!

      呼吸道對空氣的處理的說課稿

      說課稿 時間:2019-07-05 我要投稿
      【www.51cxty.com - 說課稿】

        尊敬的各位領導、老師:你們好!

        我說課的題目是《呼吸道對空氣的處理》。這節課是人教版七年級生物下冊第三章中的第一節。下面我從四個方面介紹一下對這節課的設計。

        一、教材的地位與作用:

        《呼吸道對空氣的處理》這節課,是人教版初中生物學七年級下冊第四單元第三章的第一節。是繼第一章生殖第二章消化之后對呼吸系統結構與功能等知識的學習,也是學習本章后兩節發生在肺內的氣體交換、空氣質量與健康的基礎。學習生物學知識的價值之一就是增進人類的健康.本節課也是學習生物學的要實現的終極目標之一“了解自己,增進健康”的基礎.

        二、教材分析

        新課程標準對本章的具體要求是:

        1、描述人體呼吸系統的組成(了解水平);

        2、概述人體組織細胞處的氣體交換過程(理解水平);

        上述第二個要求,既可以讓學生明確呼吸作用的含義,又可以使學生在弄清呼吸作用的意義、價值的基礎上,激發學好本章知識技能的興趣和動力,是一項十分重要的基礎知識。

        重點:人體呼吸系統的組成和呼吸道的作用。

        難點:如何通過資料分析,想象并理解呼吸道的作用。

        三、學情分析

        初中階段的學生,思維比較活躍,喜歡表現自我,不喜歡老師的空洞說教。拒絕老師將思想強加給他們。因此在課堂教學中要多引用資料、圖片,結合運用多媒體,多聯系貼近生活的實例,盡力通過學生的切身感受和體驗,發展他們的思維能力。通過本節的學習,使學生知道人的生命和呼吸息息相關。

        四、教學方法分析

        基于本節課的特點,為突出重點,突破難點,從而實現教學目標,在教學教程中著重采用如下教學方法。

        啟發引導、交流、討論。

        五、教學過程分析

        1、教師提問:為什么新生兒總是啼哭著來到人間?(學生動腦思考后自由發言。)

        2、如果你捏鼻子,閉嘴,有什么感受?(學生實際體驗,通過思考,描述感覺,回答問題。)

        推進新課 板書:第三章 人體的呼吸)人的呼吸是由呼吸系統來完成的。首先,我們來了解呼吸系統的組成。(板書:一、呼吸系統的組成)

        請看書43頁圖Ⅳ-25,思考:呼吸系統是由哪些器官組成的?演示課件:呼吸系統的組成。鼻、咽、喉、氣管、支氣管組成一個通道,是氣體進出肺的通道叫呼吸道。

        請學生談談捏鼻子,張嘴;不捏鼻子,閉嘴;捏鼻子,閉嘴的感受。根據不同的感覺來推測呼吸道的作用。(板書:二、呼吸道的作用)

        請閱讀44頁資料分析,以小組的形式進行討論,尋找答案。

        1.呼吸道有什么結構能保證氣流通暢?

        演示圖片:氣管呈C型的軟骨、喉部的軟骨、鼻骨與軟骨。

        學生討論得出:骨與軟骨作支架,使整個呼吸道暢通。

        2.呼吸道除了保證氣流的通暢外,還有哪些作用?

        情景:在冬天張大嘴巴呼吸和用鼻呼吸感覺有什么不同?

        演示圖片:鼻黏膜

        用鼻呼吸,黏液能濕潤空氣,鼻毛能清潔空氣。鼻黏膜內具有豐富的毛細血管,溫暖的血液流經鼻腔時,散發出許多熱量,可以溫暖吸入的空氣。

        可見,呼吸道能對吸入的氣體進行處理,使到達肺部的氣體溫暖、濕潤、清潔。

        演示圖片:北歐人和赤道人的鼻子。提問:北歐人鼻子的特點與他的生活環境有關嗎?

        人類在長期的計劃的過程中,逐漸形成了這種適應環境的特點。

        3.有呼吸道對空氣的處理,人體就能完全避免空氣中有害物質的危害嗎?為什么?誰來談談你所查閱到的有關呼吸系統的疾病?學生進行信息交流,匯報呼吸系統疾病。如哮喘、塵肺、肺炎等。

        學生討論得出:呼吸道的作用是有限的,如果生活在空氣污染較嚴重的環境,就可能患呼吸系統疾病,如塵肺等。

        因此,我們要保護好環境,減少空氣污染,尤其是不要隨地吐痰。

        4.痰是怎么形成的?為什么不要隨地吐痰?

        演示:氣管壁縱切圖

        痰中含大量的病原體,如流行性感冒、肺結核、肺炎、麻疹、百日咳以及白喉等都可以通過痰來傳播。痰干燥后,其中的細菌就會隨灰塵漂浮到空氣中。結合SARS對學生進行衛生教育。

        通過資料分析,你能概括出呼吸道有什么功能?

        學生討論得出呼吸道的功能:氣體進出的通道,并對進入體內的空氣具有溫暖、濕潤、清潔的作用。

        板書:三、 吞咽與呼吸的關系:

        教師出示“吃飯時大笑會嗆著”的小漫畫和“吞咽與呼吸關系圖”,引導學生敘述吞咽與呼吸的關系,鼓勵學生發言,談體會。

        學生觀察“吃飯時大笑會嗆著”的小漫畫和吞咽與呼吸關系圖。談體會及家長對此事的看法。形成“食不言”的正確觀點。

        課堂小結

        通過本節課的學習,你們都掌握了哪些知識?對呼吸道的作用有哪些新的認識?引導學生總結本課內容。學生多人站起來發言,互相補充,比較完整的進行了小結。

        鞏固練習

        1、人體的呼吸系統是由( )和( ) 組成的。

        呼吸系統具有適合與外界進行( )的結構和功能。

        2、呼吸道不僅僅是氣體的( )。

        它還能對吸入的氣體進行處理,使其 、 、 。

        3、呼吸道對空氣的處理能力是 的。

        板書設計

        一、 呼吸系統的組成

        1、呼吸道

        2、肺

        二、呼吸道的作用:

        1、氣體進出的通道。

        2、具有溫暖、濕潤、清潔空氣的作用。

        三、 吞咽與呼吸的關系:

        布置作業 P46 第1、2.

        總體設計思路:

        在本節課的教學設計中,充分體現了“學習對學生終身發展有用的生物”這一理念,適當借鑒了其他學科的教學長處。通過縱向橫向的對比,突破教學重難點。最后,以詩一般的結束語,給學生以無限的想象空間,從而激發學生對生物課程的興趣,培養學生合作學習的意識。倡導學生主動參與,樂于探究,勤于動手不斷獲取新知識的能力。

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