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      歡迎來到原中小學教育資源網!

      物質的溶解試講說課稿

      說課稿 時間:2019-07-04 我要投稿
      【www.51cxty.com - 說課稿】

        【教學目標】

        認知目標:

        1.理解溶液的概念及基本特征;了解溶液的一些性質

        2.了解溶液及乳化現象在生產生活中的應用價值

        能力目標:

        1.能夠通過對比實驗,歸納、了解溶液的特征

        2.通過探究實驗,了解溶液的性質,以及溶液導電的原因

        情感目標:

        1.學習科學探究的一些基本方法,培養實驗觀察,分析能力,培養探究精神

        【教學重點難點】溶液的概念、特點。

        【教學過程】

        一. 創設情境,導入新課,明確目標

        師:不瞞大家說,老師提起做飯就頭疼。一次我做飯時,忙忙碌碌,油鹽糖醋面都粘在衣服上,請同學們幫老師想想辦法,怎樣才能除掉這些污漬呢?

        生:洗

        師:用什么洗?

        生:用水洗。

        師:水起了什么作用?

        生:溶解

        師:同學們說得非常好,本節課我們就來探究物質的溶解。

        [板書]物質的溶解

        師出示教學目標[大屏幕]

        二. 自主學習,合作探究

        師: 剛才我說的這幾種物質都能夠溶解嗎?

        生:自由回答

        師:果真這樣嗎?咱們還是讓事實來說話吧!請同學們看大屏幕:

        實驗探究一

        實驗內容 觀察到的想象

        面粉放入水中

        豆油放入水中

        食鹽放入水中

        糖放入水中

        食粗放入水中

        師:下面同學們進行實驗,并完成實驗報告。

        生:實驗并回答

        師:[追問]那么這些狀態都是溶于水嗎?

        生:不是

        師:既然不是,那么我們不能說物質在水中溶解,而只能說物質在水中分散,共有幾種情況?

        [板書]一、物質在水中的分散

        生:三種情況

        師;同學們看面粉分散在水中,振蕩后,懸浮在水中的是什么狀態的物質?

        生:固體

        師:我們把這樣的混合物稱為懸濁液。請同學們試著總結一下。

        生:自由回答

        [板書] 1.懸濁液:固體小顆粒分散在水中

        師:面粉分散在水中形成的是懸濁液,我們仔細觀察:振蕩靜置后,面粉不是均勻分散在水中,會分層,我們就說它不均勻,不穩定。那老師衣服上的面粉如何除去呢?

        生:洗

        師:用水洗后如不干凈,可再次用水漂洗。

        師:豆油分散在水中,振蕩后,分散在水中的物質是什么狀態的?

        生:液體

        師:我們把這樣的混合物稱為乳濁液。請同學們試著總結一下。

        生:自由回答

        [板書] 2.乳濁液:小液滴分散在水中

        師:只要是里面存在不溶性固體物質的就是懸濁液,只要是油,無論是豆油、柴油、潤滑油還是香油,分散在水中的形成的都是乳濁液。下面請同學們分析懸濁液 、乳濁液各有什么特點呢?

        生:懸濁液中分散的是固體,而乳濁液中分散的是小液滴

        [板書] 固體 小液滴(加點強調)

        師:是否都均勻分散?是否都穩定呢?

        生:不是

        師:我們就說不均一,不穩定,這是兩者的共同特點。同學們再看鹽、糖、醋放在水中有何共同特點?

        生:自由回答

        師:鹽、糖、醋放在水中為什么消失了?請同學們看大屏幕:

        食鹽在水中的溶解過程(微觀運動)。

        師;同學們先考慮食鹽是由什么構成的?水是有什么構成的?

        生;自由回答

        師:注意觀察在誰的作用下,鈉離子和氯離子開始分散的?如何分散的?(再觀察一遍)

        生;在水分子的作用下均勻分散

        [板書]均勻分散

        師:我們把像食鹽這樣的物質以離子形式均勻分散在水中的過程叫物質的溶解。

        [板書] 溶解:物質以離子 形式均勻分散在水中。

        師:再考慮蔗糖是由什么構成的?它在水中是如何分散的?請同學們看大屏幕:(注意微觀過程)

        生:在水分子的作用下,蔗糖分子均勻分散在水中

        師;我們把像蔗糖這樣的物質以分子形式均勻分散在水中的過程也叫物質的溶解。

        [板書](補充)或分子

        師:物質溶解后形成哪類物質?

        生:混合物

        [板書]混合物

        師:我們把這樣的混合物稱為溶液。

        [板書]溶液

        師:我們再來看鹽水、糖水、醋水,是否分上中下三層?

        生:不是

        師:以糖水為例,如果從上中下分別取一些,甜度是否相同?

        生:是

        師:我們稱之為均一的

        [板書]均一的

        師:我們再次考慮,假設試管中的糖水在溫度不變化,水分不蒸發的情況下,長期放置,是否有糖析出?

        生:不會

        師:我們稱之為穩定的。

        [板書]穩定的

        師:哪位同學試著總結一下溶液的概念?

        生:物質溶解后形成的均一的、穩定的混合物。

        師:凡是均一穩定的液體都是溶液嗎?

        生:自由回答

        師:水、純酒精都不是溶液,為什么?

        生:都是純凈物。

        師:那么根據溶液的概念,溶液有哪些特征呢?

        生:自由回答

        師:均一性指溶液各部分的性質相同。穩定性是指在水分不蒸發,溫度不變化的情況下,長期放置不分層。

        師:現在同學們想想老師衣服上的糖醋鹽如何除掉呢?

        生:洗

        師:水洗形成什么?

        生:溶液

        師[追問]:溶液一定是一種物質分散在水中形成的嗎?

        生:可以是一種或幾種物質

        師:溶液一定是物質分散在水中形成的嗎?(這個問題先放一放)再次請同學想想老師衣服上的污漬還剩什么沒有除掉呢?

        生:油污

        師:油污怎么除掉呢?

        生:自由回答

        師:我們不妨做一下實驗,請同學看大屏幕:

        實驗探究二

        實驗內容 觀察到的想象

        豆油放入汽油中

        豆油放入洗潔精中

        生:實驗

        師:巡視并指導

        師:請小組派代表說一說你看到的實驗現象?

        生:自由回答

        師:豆油溶于汽油形成的是什么?

        生:溶液

        師:你是如何判斷的?

        生:均一、穩定

        師:那么溶液一定是物質溶于水形成的嗎?

        生:也可以是溶于其他物質,例如豆油溶于汽油。

        師:還例如碘溶于酒精,稱為碘酒。因此水應改成另一種物質。

        【板書】另一種物質

        師:溶液一定是無色的嗎?舉例說明

        生:高錳酸鉀溶液紫紅色,硫酸銅溶液藍色,氯化亞鐵淺綠色。

        {這樣,一步一步探究突出重點,突破難點,建立了溶液的概念。}

        師:我們再來看盛有豆油、水和洗潔精的試管,洗潔精在油和水的混合物中起了什么作用?

        生:把大油滴分散成小油滴

        師:這兩支試管中有何不同呢?

        生:豆油溶于汽油形成的是溶液,洗潔精中豆油從大油滴變成小油滴,形成的是乳濁液。

        [板書]大油滴 小油滴

        師:我們把像洗潔精這樣,把大油滴分散成小油滴形成乳濁液的過程,稱為乳化。洗潔精所起的作用稱為乳化作用。例如洗發水、洗衣粉、肥皂、沐浴露等在去除油漬時所起的作用都是乳化作用。那老師衣服上的油漬如果用洗潔精洗的話,是如何除去的呢?

        [板書]乳化:

        生:把大油滴分散成小油滴,隨水流走了。

        三總結歸納,心中有數,知識升華

        .師:到此,老師衣服上的污漬已經除凈了,本節課我們需要學習的知識也學完了,下面請同學們談一談本節課的收獲?

        生:自由回答

        四. 當堂檢測,反饋矯正,鞏固提高

        師:我們從生活走向化學,再讓我們從化學走向社會,去解決現實生活中的實際問題,好嗎?接下來學生練習。(學生樹立關心自然,關心社會的情感意識)

        板書設計

        物質的溶解

        一、物質在水中的分散

        1.懸濁液:固體小顆粒分散在水中

        2.乳濁液:小液滴分散在水中

        ↑

        乳 化:大油滴→小油滴

        3.溶液:均一、穩定的混合物 —— 均一穩定

        ↑

        溶解:分子或離子均勻分散在另一種物質中

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