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      歡迎來到原中小學教育資源網!

      《返回式遙感衛星》閱讀練習題

      試題 時間:2019-06-26 我要投稿
      【www.51cxty.com - 試題】

        閱讀下面的短文,完成18—23題

        ①返回式遙感衛星是重1800—2100千克的精密衛星,它由儀器艙和回收艙組成。儀器艙中裝有遙感攝影相機和控制跟蹤系統,相機的分辨率很高,在數百公里的高空,它拍攝的每一張照片能覆蓋3萬4千平方千米,是名副其實的千里眼。借助特殊的判讀技術,能從照片上看清地面的汽車和大海的波浪。衛星相機18天就可以把整個地球掃描一遍,完成拍攝任務后,儀器艙的使命結束,在茫茫的字審中隕滅。回收艙有制動火箭、回收系統、跟蹤遙測設備和暗道片盒。衛星相機拍攝的底片都儲存在暗道片盒里,所以它是回收艙的核心。其他都是確保衛星安全返回地面的精密裝置。返回式遙感衛星,集中了傳感、通信、信息、材料等高技術,是我國科學家集體智慧的結晶。

        ②衛星的發射回收是一項尖端的科學技術。在幾百公里的高空軌道,衛星面對太陽時溫度高達100℃,走進地球的陰影又降至—200℃,降落時與空氣摩擦還會產生幾百攝氏度的高溫,沒有先進的隔熱調溫設施,儀器就無法正常工作。返回時星體得保持100度轉角,頭向地球。回收艙與儀器艙分離后,制動火箭自動點火,推動艙體飛向地球。這時,地面遙控系統和衛星上的程控系統必須匹配無誤,如果回收角偏差1度,落點就會偏差300公里,要是掉到居民區,會造成星毀人亡的嚴重后果。

        ③衛星帶回的照片,為找礦、地圖測繪、鐵路選線、農林調查、環境監測、地震預報、考古研究等提供了大量的信息資料。例如,科技人員已用衛星照片在北京周圍16萬平方千米的土地上找到了7個成礦區,在內蒙古發現了大煤田,在新疆找到了三個新油帶。用衛星照片編制各種比例的地質圖又快又好,一個五萬分之一的石油地質構造圖,如用人工繪制,必須26個人測量568個點,工作四個月,現在一張衛星照片就可以解決問題。我國的寶成鐵路建成后,已發生各種塌方、泥石流災害100多次,治理費已花去近7億元。從衛星照片分析發現,一些路段正好筑在地層斷裂帶,如果用衛星選線,繞開斷裂帶,就可以避免不必要的損失。50年代初,為了興建包蘭鐵路,地理學家吳傳鈞帶領助手歷盡千辛萬苦,奮斗幾年才選出一條最佳的鋪設線路,如果用衛星選線,只要幾天工夫就能完成。

        ④用返回式衛星進行搭載實驗,經濟效益也十分顯著。例如,砷化鎵是重要的半導體材料,在衛星微重力條件下結晶生長,質地純正,性能更為優良;在衛星上生成的蛋白質晶體,比地球上的大數倍。送往空中的植物種子,在電離輻射下會發生變異,王米、西瓜、西紅柿提前開花結果,紫紅的雞冠花變成了淡綠色,微生物外觀顏色改變,活力增加,這些有趣的現象為空間生命科學的研究提供了新信息。

        18.文章的說明順序是 ;文章第③段運用的說明方法主要有?

        19.返回式遙感衛星儀器艙的使命是 。

        20.文章第①段加點的詞“其他”所指代的具體內容是。

        21.返回式遙感衛星在發射回收過程中需解決哪些尖端科技問題?請簡要回答。

        答:

        22.利用返回式遙感衛星帶回的照片進行鐵路選線具有哪些優勢?

        答:

        23.返回式遙感衛星的獨特功用是什么?

        答:

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