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      歡迎來到原中小學教育資源網!

      光的反射課件

      課件 時間:2018-04-28 我要投稿
      【www.51cxty.com - 課件】

        光的反射指光在傳播到不同物質時,在分界面上改變傳播方向又返回原來物質中的現象。下面是小編分享給大家的光的反射課件,希望對大家有幫助。

        知識目標

        1.知道什么是光的反射現象.

        2.理解光的反射定律,能應用反射定律解決一些簡單的問題.

        3.知道鏡面反射和漫反射,并能用來解釋一些簡單現象.

        能力目標

        1.通過觀察分析實驗,總結得出光的反射定律,培養觀察、分析、概括的能力.

        2.通過對光的反射定律的分析培養學生的邏輯思維能力.

        3.通過光的反射現象的解釋,培養學生運用物理知識解決實際問題的能力.

        4.通過對光路圖的應用,逐漸培養學生空間想象能力和抽象思維能力.

        情感目標

        通過生動有趣的光學現象調動學生學習興趣,培養學生積極向上的情感.

        教學建議

        教材分析

        本節課由我們能看到本身不發光的物體引入光的反射現象,然后轉入研究光的反射規律,通過實驗總結出光的反射定律,并指出光發生反射時光路是可逆的.隨后介紹了光的兩種反射現象:鏡面反射和漫反射,同時說明我們能從不同方向看到物體正是由于漫反射的原因.本節學習的重點是理解光的反射定律,難點是正確確定入射角、反射角及通過實驗總結出反射規律.

        教法建議

        1)研究反射規律的實驗盡可能準確, 這是上好這一節課的關鍵.

        讓學生清楚的看到反射光線與入射光線的關系,對學生總結光的反射定律很重要.雖然誤差不可避免,但由于要得到定量的角度關系,這個實驗的準確度非常重要,做好這個實驗能為學生總結反射定律奠定有利的基礎.

        2)要給學生樹立空間的概念

        由于我們把光的反射定律最終落實在紙面上的光路圖,很容易造成學生的錯覺,認為光現象都是平面的,要有意識的借助立體模型或微機模擬使學生形象的認識光現象的空間感.

        3)通過實驗幫助學生對光路可逆的理解.

        4)光的反射定律的表述一定要清楚,語言要準確,要注意入射光與反射光,入射角與反射角的因果關系.

        教學設計示例

        教學重點: 正確確定入射角、反射角;理解光的反射定律

        教學難點:引導學生通過實驗探索反射現象的規律

        教具:畫有角度的可折疊的白色硬紙板、一面鏡子、兩個光源、一張白紙、大頭針(或牙簽)、鉛筆、直尺

        教學過程

        一、引入新課

        問題引入

        為什么我們既能看到發光的物體又能看到不發光的物體?如在遮蔽門窗的教室內,打開電燈,我們不僅能看到發光的電燈,同時還能看到桌椅、墻壁、同學及周圍一切本身不發光的物體,這是什么原因?從而引出“反射”的概念,還可舉例我們看到月亮是因為它反射光,但它不是光源,有人說站在地球上看地球就像一個大月亮.引入反射后,可進一步引入“反射光”和“入射光”的概念,并提出問題:光線的反射遵從什么規律?引入新課教學.

        二、新課教學

        1. 光的反射定律

        方法1:演示實驗總結規律,按照書67頁實驗進行教學.

        演示前,將演示器材一一展示給學生.其中,硬紙板的可折疊性及硬紙板上的刻度一定要讓學生看清楚.

        實驗中,邊演示,邊介紹名詞概念:入射點、法線、入射角、反射角.隨后板書光路圖,如圖5-2-1,并標出入射角、反射角的度數.

        通過轉動紙板F和改變入射角讓學生回答下列問題:反射光線和入射光線是否一定在同一平面?反射光和入射光線是在法線的兩側還是在法線同側?反射角的大小與入射角的大小有什么關系?

        教師引導總結得出光的反射定律:反射光線與入射光線、法線在同一平面內;反射光線和入射光線分居法線的兩側;反射角等于入射角.

        方法2:探究光的反射規律(對于基礎較好的學生可使用)

        向學生介紹書67頁的實驗器材,并介紹基本概念:入射點、法線、入射角、反射角.

        提出問題:一束光射向鏡面,反射光線的位置如何確定?(可提示學生從空間到平面的思路)反射光線和入射光線的位置關系如何確定?反射角的大小與入射角的大小關系如何確定?

        學生猜想并設計實驗(可超出書上所給的器材)

        實驗探索并得出結論.

        教師引導歸納出光的反射定律.

        2.光發生反射時光路可逆.

        演示:如圖5-2-2圖,A點發出的光經O點反射后到達B點,在B點再放一光源,使其發出的光射向鏡面某點如C點,調整光線BC的方向,使其與BO重合,發現其反射光線與OA重合,從而說明反射時光路可逆.

        在講完反射定律以后,可在課堂上增加以下基本練習.

        1)光線垂直射到鏡面上,入射角和反射角各等于多少?

        2)入射光與界面夾角60°,入射角和反射角各多大?入射光線與反射光線夾角多大?

        3)反射光線跟入射光線垂直,入射角和反射角各多大?

        4)完成光路圖.(圖略,可選不同類型的題目,參考習題精選5、6、7題形式)

        3.鏡面反射和漫反射

        方法1:教室內有陽光射入的情況下可用這種方法.

        演示:讓一束太陽光斜射到平面鏡上,調整鏡面的方向,會在墻上產生一個明亮的光斑,迎著反射光的方向看,很刺眼;用一張白紙代替鏡面,從各個方向都看不到耀眼的亮光,同時墻上也沒有明亮的光斑.提出問題:這是為什么?然后再用光路圖說明原因.講解鏡面反射和漫反射.

        方法2:從反射面入手分析

        在紙板上垂直插入幾根牙簽如圖5-2-3,引導學生想象當入射光平行射到各入射點時,反射光線的方向有什么特點?隨后將紙板隨意彎折,如圖5-2-4,這時學生會看到法線不再平行,引導學生想象當入射光平行射到各入射點時,反射光線的方向有什么特點?由此引入鏡面反射和漫反射.

        用光具盤演示:鏡面反射和漫反射現象.

        總結鏡面反射和漫反射的特點和異同.

        鏡面反射

        漫反射

        相同點

        都遵守光的反射定律

        不同點

        (原因)反射面不同

        平整光滑

        粗糙不平

        (結果)反射光方向不同

        有反射光束,其他方位則沒有

        各個方向都有反射光,沒有光線集中的反射方向

        (現象)人的感覺不同

        迎著反射光看很刺眼,常說反光;其他方位看不見,或不明顯.

        各個方向都能看清

        實例

        黑板反光

        燈下看書反光

        平靜的水面

        各個方向都能看清黑板上的字

        電影屏幕用布而不用玻璃

        一般非光滑物體

        三、總結擴展

        本節課我們研究了光的反射現象,對于光的反射定律要注意它的研究方法,注意用數學方法分析實驗現象(三線、兩角的關系),并在分析這些關系的基礎上,逐步解釋它的物理本質,形成物理概念,建立物理規律.這樣有助于加深對物理概念、物理規律建立過程的理解,這是研究物理問題的重要方法.

        四、板書設計

        探究活動

        【課題】自制潛望鏡

        【活動目的】

        潛望鏡的用途很廣,在步兵的戰壕里觀察前方的戰況以及在坦克的駕駛室及炮長的瞄準都用到了潛望鏡.同學們通過制作簡單的潛望鏡可以加深理解光的反射現象以及光路設計原理.

        【組織形式】學生活動小組

        【活動流程】設計光路圖,準備用具,制作過程,交流與合作,裝置改進.

        【參考方案】

        準備兩塊小鏡子.用硬紙片做兩個直角彎頭圓筒或方筒,直徑比小鏡子稍大.在紙筒的兩直角處各開一個45度的斜口,將兩面小鏡子相對插入斜口內(如圖5-2-16所示),用紙條粘好,把兩個直角筒套在一起,即成一個簡單的潛望鏡.

        【備注】

        1、寫出制作計劃、制作過程及結果分析報告.

         2、發現新問題.

        3、總結經驗,提出新的見解.

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